A Unified Control Framework for Real-Time Power System Operation (UNICORN)
Tutorial at SmartGridComm 2021
With the increase in solar and wind generation and the deployment of more electric vehicles, the electric power system is going through an unprecedented transformation which render today’s real-time control architecture ineffective. This transition calls for more elaborated real-time control strategies for voltage regulation, line congestion control, and power curtailment. We propose a unified control framework that enables autonomous grid control beyond the state-of-the-art. The key idea is to turn iterative optimization algorithms into robust output-feedback controllers. These controllers, instead of tracking a given reference, drive the system to the optimum of a user-defined optimization problem. Furthermore, these controllers can naturally deal with input and output constraints and are proven to be robust against model mismatch, both in theory and in experiments. In this tutorial, we will present the theoretical foundation of this framework and present the results of a three-year collaboration with the French transmission grid operator, including numerical simulations on a real part of the French subtransmission grid. Furthermore, we will present an experimental demonstration of the controller on a distribution feeder. The attendees will be given access to benchmarks and code to repeat our numerical experiments and compare their own solutions to the proposed approach.
The audience will be introduced to the concept of Feedback Optimization, which allows to implement iterative optimization algorithms as robust output-feedback controllers on a physical plant.
We will show how feedback optimization can be employed to design a real-time coordinated volt/VAr control scheme for distribution grids with high renewable penetration.
Experimental study: We will illustrate the experimental performance of the proposed controllers, contrast it to standard solutions (e.g. droop), and discuss the lessons learned.
Benchmark 1: A low-voltage distribution test feeder that other researcher can use to evaluate their controllers and compare them to our control algorithm.
We will show how the feedback optimization paradigm constitutes a unified approach to multiple aspects of real-time operation of transmission and sub-transmission grids: voltage regulation, line congestion management, and curtailment of renewable generation.
Numerical simulations: We will present and discuss the numerical results of a three-year collaboration with the French TSO Réseau de Transport d’Électricité (RTE).
Benchmark 2: A numerical model based on the French subtransmission grid, where researchers can test different real-time operation strategies in the presence of a substantial renewable generation.
Q&A Session (moderated by SB, 15 min)
As part of the UNICORN project, we will distribute numerical benchmarks to test real-time control strategies for both transmission grids and distribution grids.
Miguel Picallo, Dominic Liao-McPherson, Saverio Bolognani and Florian Dörfler. Cross-layer design for real-time grid operation: estimation, optimization and power flow. Proc. 22nd Power Systems Computation Conference (PSCC), 2022. [ preprint ]
Miguel Picallo, Lukas Ortmann, Saverio Bolognani and Florian Dörfler. Adaptive real-time grid operation via online feedback optimization with sensitivity estimation. Proc. 22nd Power Systems Computation Conference (PSCC), 2022. [ preprint ]
Adrian Hauswirth, Saverio Bolognani, Gabriela Hug, and Florian Dörfler. Optimization algorithms as robust feedback controllers. arXiv:2103.11329 [math.OC], 2021. [ preprint ]
Lukas Ortmann, Alexander Prostejovsky, Kai Heussen, and Saverio Bolognani. Fully distributed peer-to-peer optimal voltage control with minimal model requirements. Electric Power Systems Research, 189:106717, December 2020. Presented at the 21st Power Systems Computation Conference (PSCC). [ DOI | preprint - video ]